is characterized by rapid, irregular activation of the atria.
Causes can include reentry and abnormal automaticity.
Atrial fibrillation is one of the
most commonly seen supraventricular arrhythmias.
AF can be paroxysmal or chronic. Chronic AF often causes a markedly elevated
ventricular response rate and thereby contributes
to the clinical signs of heart failure.
AF also can occur in the absence of overt
structural heart disease as lone AF,
which can feature a normal or mildly elevated ventricular response rate.
The contracting three-dimensional heart on the left can be rotated, zoomed, and panned by
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